**Article Summary:** Students learn to locate and plot
numbers less than 0 on a number line using negative whole numbers, fractions,
decimals, and percents. They use addition and multiplication in problem
solving situations that involve reciprocal functions in subtraction and
division. Other mathematical operations include the distributive laws in
multiplication and addition.

In 5th grade math concepts cover a broad range of mathematics topics. These are the math concepts that students must understand after completing fifth grade based on the National Mathematics Standards.
Students learn to locate and plot numbers less than 0 on a number line using negative whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and percents. They use addition and multiplication in problem solving situations that involve reciprocal functions in subtraction and division. Other mathematical operations include the distributive laws in multiplication and addition. They must be able to mentally compute multiplication and division problems, such as 10 x 50 and 50 ÷ 10. Students develop fluency in arithmetic computations using whole numbers and fractions. They learn to estimate mental computations, and check with calculators and pencil/paper.
Fifth grade students also learn how to construct geometric shapes to find their area and volume, using mathematical formulas. These include squares, prisms, rectangles, cones, circles, spheres, cylinders, etc. They also spend time learning how to apply geometric shapes to real world applications, along with connections to of content subject areas. Additional concepts in this area include the distance between given points on a straight line, along with points on horizontal and vertical lines.
Students apply measurement applications to the conversion of U.S. customary units of measurement into the metric system. They develop a basic understanding of meter, liter, and grams; including their variables. They learn to apply estimation skills for determining the shape, volume, area, and mass of different objects.
Students use data tables to construct line plots, bar graphs, and line graphs. They use data to draw conclusions and predictions collected in observations, experiments, and surveys. They develop mathematical theories for explaining events that will result in likely or unlikely outcomes. They interpret data that are represented on graphical plots to make predictions of likely outcomes.
All of these mathematical concepts are used to develop a well rounded base knowledge of mathematical ideas and language as students' progress to higher levels of mathematics. |