Article Summary: They learn a broad range of mathematics
topics. These are the math concepts that students must understand by the
end of the 8th grade. All of these mathematical concepts are used to develop
a well rounded base knowledge of mathematical ideas and language as students'
progress to higher levels of mathematics.
What do students in grade 6 through grade 8 learn in math? They learn a broad range of mathematics topics. These are the math concepts that students must understand by the end of the 8th grade based on the National Mathematics standards.
Numbers and Operations concepts students study include understanding numbers, number relationships, and number systems. Students need to understand fractions, decimals, and percents and the relationship of their location on a number line. This includes understanding quantitative relationships of ratios and proportions of numbers. Using factors, multiples, prime numbers, and relative prime numbers to solve math problems.
Students study the uses associative and commutative properties in addition and multiplication. This includes developing an understanding of inverse relationships in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Also they learn the relationships squaring and finding the square roots of numbers. They develop and analyze algorithms for computing fractions, decimals, and integers as applied to problem solving situations.
Algebra focuses on the concepts to represent, analyze, and general a variety of patterns as they relate to symbolic rules. They interpret data on as either linear or non-linear when transferred from data tables to graphs or equations. They learn to use symbolic algebra to represent situations found in algebraic expressions and equations. They learn to use graphing calculators to analyze expressions and equations, along with traditional computational tools.
Geometry concepts focus analyzing the characteristics of two and three dimensional objects to find their angles, side lengths, perimeters, areas, and more. They use coordinate geometry to examine special objects such as polygons, and objects with parallel and perpendicular lines. They also analyze the relationships in objects as to congruence, similarity, and the Pythagorean Theorem. They also describe transformations of objects by similarity and rotation. Finally they use geometric patterns to solve problems.
Measurement concepts focus on using customary standard and non-standard units of measurement and determine the relationships between varieties of objects. This is also connected with geometry as they learn how to measure the area, volume, and mass of different geometric shapes. They learn how to measure all aspects of circles, prisms, and pyramids.
Students apply measurement applications to the conversion of U.S. customary units of measurement into the metric system. They develop a basic understanding of meter, liter, and grams; including their variables. They learn to apply estimation skills for determining the shape, volume, area, and mass of different objects.
Data Analysis and Probability concepts focus on using appropriate language to explain findings in mathematical experiments and simulations. They learn how to develop questions that help find the differences between two or more samples in a population. They develop mathematical theories for explaining events that will result in likely or unlikely outcomes. They interpret data that are represented on graphical plots to make predictions of likely outcomes.
Problem Solving for eighth grade students focuses the development of problem solving strategies to help them develop a fundamental understanding of mathematics. Students use word problems and other real world simulations in problems solving situations.
Representation concepts focus on students learning to collect and organize data, then using the data to solve problems. Answers are presented as models that are numerical, written, physical, and social. They are able to draw graphs, charts, tables, and other forms to explain how they solved a problem.
Connection concepts are designed for eighth grade students to demonstrate how to make connections to real world applications and other subject content areas. This includes making connections with other concepts in mathematics.
Communicate their mathematics ideas in the form of sentences, drawings, posters, and multimedia applications is another concept that students need to master. This is used to ascertain their level of understanding as they explain mathematical concepts to other students and teachers.
Reasoning and Proof concepts are used to explain mathematical findings and problem solving techniques. This is necessary so that they develop skills on how to present logical arguments to math situations.
All of these mathematical concepts are used to develop a well rounded base knowledge of mathematical ideas and language as students' progress to higher levels of mathematics.