First grade math concepts cover a range of mathematics topics. These
are the math concepts that students should understand by the end of
the first grade based on the National Mathematics Standards.
Numbers and Operations concepts taught in the first grade
include the use whole numbers in a variety of arithmetic and real
world situations. Students apply addition, subtraction, division,
and multiplication to problems and differentiate between the four
operations. They use various strategies for using whole numbers to
solve real and simulated situations. First grade students additionally
study basic fractions such as 1/2, 1/4, etc. They use calculators,
along with traditional tools to solve arithmetic operations.
Geometry concepts are taught by developing an understanding
of two and three dimensional objects, such as: squares, rectangles,
triangles, circles, cubes, rectangles, etc. They also study the objects
to compare their parts related to two and three dimensional shapes.
Additional areas of geometry and shapes focus on how close objects
are to other objects in relation to how near or how far away they
are to each other. Students apply the concept of distance in relation
to maps and globes. In addition, they relate the ideas of geometry
to other concept areas of mathematics. They learn to recognize geometric
shapes in common everyday objects.
Algebra concepts concentrate on the study of patterns for
repeating and growing patterns in the properties of objects. They
develop an understanding of patterns in sounds, shapes, and numbers.
They use changes in patterns to quantify and qualify descriptions.
Measurement concepts focus on the using standard and non-standard
units of measurement to determine the relationships between different
objects. For example: using their bodies, cubes, their feet, and other
objects to find the length of an object. They learn to use estimations
skills to explain measurement. This is also connected with geometry
as they learn how to measure the length, area, volume, and mass of
different objects. They learn how to measure all aspects of circles,
prisms, and pyramids. They learn to use different traditional measuring
tools for taking measurements of objects.
Data Analysis and Probability concepts are designed to have
students use appropriate language to ask questions regarding data
they collected. They sort and classify objects to make predictions
of outcomes. They learn how to develop questions that will help them
find the differences between two samples in a population. Describe
predictions as likely or unlikely to happen based on their data. Represent
data in using concrete objects, pictures, and graphs.
Problem Solving for first grade students focuses the development
of problem solving strategies to help them develop a fundamental understanding
of mathematics. Students use word problems and other real world simulations
in problems solving situations.
Representation concepts focus on students learning to collect
and organize data, then using the data to solve problems. Answers
are presented as models that are numerical, written, physical, and
social. They are able to draw graphs, charts, tables, and other forms
to explain how they solved a problem.
Connection concepts are designed for first grade students
to demonstrate how to make connections to real world applications
and other subject content areas. This includes making connections
with other concepts in mathematics.
Communicate their mathematics ideas in the form of sentences,
drawings, posters, and multimedia applications is another concept
that students need to master. This is used to ascertain their level
of understanding as they explain mathematical concepts to other students
Reasoning and Proof concepts are used to explain mathematical
findings and problem solving techniques. This is necessary so that
they develop skills on how to present logical arguments to math situations.
All of these mathematical concepts are used to develop a well rounded
base knowledge of mathematical ideas and language as students' progress
to higher levels of mathematics.