What do students in grade 6 through grade 8 learn in math? They learn a broad range of mathematics topics. These are the math concepts that students must understand by the end of the 8th grade based on the National Mathematics standards.

**Numbers and Operations** concepts students study include understanding
numbers, number relationships, and number systems. Students need to
understand fractions, decimals, and percents and the relationship
of their location on a number line. This includes understanding quantitative
relationships of ratios and proportions of numbers. Using factors,
multiples, prime numbers, and relative prime numbers to solve math
problems.

Students study the uses associative and commutative properties in addition and multiplication. This includes developing an understanding of inverse relationships in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Also they learn the relationships squaring and finding the square roots of numbers. They develop and analyze algorithms for computing fractions, decimals, and integers as applied to problem solving situations.

**Algebra** focuses on the concepts to represent, analyze, and
general a variety of patterns as they relate to symbolic rules. They
interpret data on as either linear or non-linear when transferred
from data tables to graphs or equations. They learn to use symbolic
algebra to represent situations found in algebraic expressions and
equations. They learn to use graphing calculators to analyze expressions
and equations, along with traditional computational tools.

**Geometry **concepts focus analyzing the characteristics of two
and three dimensional objects to find their angles, side lengths,
perimeters, areas, and more. They use coordinate geometry to examine
special objects such as polygons, and objects with parallel and perpendicular
lines. They also analyze the relationships in objects as to congruence,
similarity, and the Pythagorean Theorem. They also describe transformations
of objects by similarity and rotation. Finally they use geometric
patterns to solve problems.

**Measurement** concepts focus on using customary standard and
non-standard units of measurement and determine the relationships
between varieties of objects. This is also connected with geometry
as they learn how to measure the area, volume, and mass of different
geometric shapes. They learn how to measure all aspects of circles,
prisms, and pyramids.

Students apply measurement applications to the conversion of U.S. customary units of measurement into the metric system. They develop a basic understanding of meter, liter, and grams; including their variables. They learn to apply estimation skills for determining the shape, volume, area, and mass of different objects.

**Data Analysis and Probability** concepts focus on using appropriate
language to explain findings in mathematical experiments and simulations.
They learn how to develop questions that help find the differences
between two or more samples in a population. They develop mathematical
theories for explaining events that will result in likely or unlikely
outcomes. They interpret data that are represented on graphical plots
to make predictions of likely outcomes.

**Problem Solving** for eighth grade students focuses the development
of problem solving strategies to help them develop a fundamental understanding
of mathematics. Students use word problems and other real world simulations
in problems solving situations.

**Representation** concepts focus on students learning to collect
and organize data, then using the data to solve problems. Answers
are presented as models that are numerical, written, physical, and
social. They are able to draw graphs, charts, tables, and other forms
to explain how they solved a problem.

**Connection** concepts are designed for eighth grade students
to demonstrate how to make connections to real world applications
and other subject content areas. This includes making connections
with other concepts in mathematics.

**Communicate** their mathematics ideas in the form of sentences,
drawings, posters, and multimedia applications is another concept
that students need to master. This is used to ascertain their level
of understanding as they explain mathematical concepts to other students
and teachers.

**Reasoning and Proof **concepts are used to explain mathematical
findings and problem solving techniques. This is necessary so that
they develop skills on how to present logical arguments to math situations.

All of these mathematical concepts are used to develop a well rounded base knowledge of mathematical ideas and language as students' progress to higher levels of mathematics.