Kindergarten math concepts have a narrow range of mathematics topics. These are the math concepts that students should understand by the end of the Kindergarten based on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards.

When it comes to **Numbers and Operations** concepts these are
the concepts that students study. Students use a variety of objects
to understand and recognize how many are in a group. They use whole
number is a verity of arithmetic and real world situations. Students
apply addition and subtraction to problems and differentiate between
the two operations. They use various strategies for using whole numbers
to solve real and simulated situations. They use calculators, along
with traditional tools to solve arithmetic operations.

In the area of **Geometry** concepts they develop an understanding
of two and three dimensional objects, such as: squares, rectangles,
cones, spheres, cylinders, etc. They also study the objects to compare
parts of two and three dimensional shapes. Additional areas of geometry
and shapes will be the focus how close objects are to other objects
in relation to how near or how far away they are to each other. Students
apply concept of distance in relation to maps and globes. In addition,
they relate the ideas of geometry to other concept areas of mathematics.
They learn to recognize geometric shapes in common everyday objects.

Kindergarten students use **Algebra** to analyze patterns, sorting
objects, and properties of objects. The will develop an understanding
of patterns in music, shapes, and numbers. They use changes in height
to quantify and qualify descriptions.

The concept area of **Measurement** is focused on the using standard
and non-standard units of measurement to determine the relationships
between different objects. For example: using their bodies, cubes,
their feet, and other objects to find the length of an object. They
learn to use estimations skills to explain measurement. This is also
connected with geometry as they learn how to measure the length, area,
volume, and mass of different objects. They learn how to measure all
aspects of circles, prisms, and pyramids.

In the concept area of **Data Analysis and Probability** students
will use appropriate language to ask questions regarding data they
collected. They sort and classify objects to make predictions of outcomes..
They learn how to develop questions that will help them find the differences
between tow samples in a population. Describe predictions as likely
or unlikely to happen based on their data.

When it comes to **Problem Solving**, kindergarten students develop
problem solving strategies to help them develop a fundamental understanding
of mathematics. Students use word problems and other real world simulations
in problems solving situations.

In the concept are of **Representation**, students learn to collect
and organize data. Then use the data to solve problems. Answers will
be presented as models that are physical and social. They are able
to draw graphs, charts, tables, and other forms to explain how they
solved a problem.

For **Connection **concepts students learn to make connections
to real world applications and other subject content areas. This includes
making connections with other concepts in mathematics.

Students learn to **Communicate** their mathematics ideas in the
form of sentences, drawings, posters, and multimedia applications.
This is used to ascertain their level of understanding as they explain
mathematical concepts to other students and teachers.

Students use logical **Reasoning and Proof **to explain their
mathematical findings and problem solving techniques. This is necessary
so that they develop how to present logical arguments to math situations.

All of these mathematical concepts are used to develop a well rounded base knowledge of mathematical ideas and language as students' progress to higher levels of mathematics.